1. What is Hypertension

High blood pressure (also known as hypertension) is the silent killer. Without warning, high blood pressure can lead to life-threatening conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and kidney disease.

Blood pressure changes throughout the day, and even fluctuates by the minutes. Measuring only once a day does not reflect the actual status of the blood pressure condition. Monitoring trend of blood pressure fluctuation would provide better evaluation of the patient's condition.

Watch Video: What is hypertension?

2. Why is Blood pressure measured at the clinics different from those measured at home?

Besides fluctuations, an observation known as "white coat effect" may also contribute to different blood pressure readings. Most people are anxious when visiting the doctor and could experience a rise in blood pressure. On the other hand, people are usually more relaxed at home, and have lower blood pressure readings.

3. Symptoms of High Blood Pressure

Many people who suffer from high blood pressure are unaware, as the illness has no symptoms. If left undetected, these people are at risk of developing more serious illness like stroke, heart failure, kidney failure, and even heart attacks. Early detection for people who are at risk can be achieved by regular blood pressure measurement.

4. Is High blood pressure related to family history?

Even a person with no previous history of high blood pressure can develop hypertension from lifestyle factors. Some of these factors include:

  • Stress
  • Gender
  • Lack of exercise
  • Increasing age
  • Poor diet
  • Being overweight

5. Why is it importance to measure Blood Pressure at home?

Doctors, diabetes educators, physician assistants, nurses and other healthcare professionals recommend home blood pressure monitoring for various reasons, including the ability to provide them with better information to understand and manage your high blood pressure.

Monitoring your blood pressure at home allows you to more easily get to a relaxed state and the flexibility to take your measurements at various times during the day. By keeping track of your home blood pressure readings, you can provide your healthcare professional with a log of blood pressure measurements over time, which can help them, evaluate the effectiveness or need for medication.

Watch Video: Importance of home BP monitoring

6. What are the standard Blood Pressure Classifications?

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) jointly developed the following blood pressure classification. This classification, however, this is only a general guideline because your optimum blood pressure depends on your age, morbidity, and treatment strategy by a doctor. Consult your doctor to determine your optimum blood pressure.

Range Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure
Normal between 100 and 140 between 60 and 90
Mild hypertension between 140 and 160 between 90 and 100
Moderate hypertension between 170 and 180 between 100 and 110
Severe hypertension higher than 180 higher than 110

7. Helpful Blood Pressure Reminders

  • Have your blood pressure checked by your doctor.
  • If you have high blood pressure, follow your doctor's advice about changing your diet and lifestyle habits.
  • If your doctor has prescribed medication for your high blood pressure, it is very important to take it regularly. If you have any new symptoms, call your doctor.
  • Measure and record your blood pressure at home regularly. This information may be valuable to your doctor in evaluating your condition.
  • Cooperate. You and your doctor must work together in order to keep your blood pressure and your diabetes under control.


1. What is Diabetes

Diabetes is a medical condition in which the blood glucose levels remain persistently higher than normal. It is becoming more common in Singapore. This may be due in part to ageing population, unhealthy diets and lack of exercise.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows your body cells to use blood glucose (sugar) for energy. Food is converted into glucose before it is absorbed into our bloodstream. The pancreas then releases insulin to move the glucose from the bloodstream into the body cells for use or storage. People with diabetes are unable to fully use the glucose in their bloodstream due to:

  • lack of insulin in the body
  • insulin is ineffective

2. Types of Diabetes

There are three major types of diabetes:

Type 1 Diabetes

  • no insulin is produced due to damaged pancreatic cells
  • usually diagnosed in children or young adults although it can occur at any age
  • insulin is needed for treatment
  • complications are sudden and life-threatening
Type 2 Diabetes

  • insulin produced is not enough or not effective (insulin resistance)
  • occurs more frequently in people over 40 years old, particularly those who are overweight and physically inactive
  • more younger adults and children are developing Type 2 Diabetes
  • can be controlled with proper diet and exercise but most diabetics also need oral medication
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

  • Occurs in about 2-5% of all pregnancies. Women who were not diagnosed to have diabetes previously show high blood glucose levels during pregnancy.
  • needs specialized obstetric care to reduce serious complications to the unborn baby

3. Symptoms of Diabetes

The common symptoms of diabetes are:

  • frequent thirst despite drinking lots of water
  • constant hunger
  • constant tiredness
  • itchy skin especially around the genital area
  • passing excessive urine during day and night
  • weight loss despite good appetite
  • poor healing of cuts and wounds

4. Complications

Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to high blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) and low blood glucose (hypoglycaemia).Both situations can cause a diabetic to become very sick very quickly and even go into a coma.

The long-term complications of diabetes include:

  • coronary heart disease such as angina, heart attack
  • stroke
  • eye disease
  • kidney disease
  • foot disease such as numbness, ulcers and even gangrene
  • nerve disease which can lead to problems such as impotence and diarrhoea

5. Screening & diagnosis

Diabetes can be detected through a blood glucose test.

Glucose range for people without diabetes:

Fasting Blood Glucose and before meal Non-fasting Blood Glucose (2 hours after meal)
Normal: < 100 mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) Normal: < 140 mg/dL (7.8mmol/L)

Note: Blood glucose management requires the help of a healthcare professional. If one's reading is not consistent with his/her symptoms, or if one's blood glucose result is less than 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) or higher than 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L), he/she should contact his/her healthcare professionals and follow his or her advice.

6. Treatment

Diabetes is a life-long disease. Your diabetes may be controlled through diet or a combination of diet and medication. Follow your doctor's instructions on diet and/or medication.

As a diabetic person, it is important to monitor your glucose level regularly and take extra good care of your body to maintain good health.

7. Self-care

A diabetic person has to take extra care of his body to maintain good health. Self-monitoring gives you the benefit of being able to bring any perilous situation under control.

With proper management, you can really learn to control your blood sugar levels.


Childhood asthma is not only prevalent among infant and young children; it is also the leading cause of school absences, emergency department visits and hospitalization. Asthma can begin at any age, with most children showing their first symptoms before the age of five.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (also known as COPD) is a condition where airway becomes occluded state and alveoli function is broken by polluted gas or tobacco smoke. This makes breathing difficult.

A major challenge in respiratory therapy is the efficient delivery of the medication to the bronchi and bronchioles in the lower respiratory tract. To overcome this challenge, inhalers and nebulizers convert the medication to an aerosolized form for rapid delivery. These devices convert liquid medication into a mist of microscopic particles that is then inhaled through a mouthpiece or mask.


Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.

Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

A commonly used measurement of obesity is the body mass index (BMI), a person's weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in metres). A person with a BMI of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a BMI equal to or more than 25 is considered overweight.

Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness.

Lose weight the healthy way by balancing your diet and engaging in physical activity.


Body Temperature & Fever
The term 'body temperature' normally relates to the temperature deep inside the body. This temperature must be maintained to ensure the stable operation of vital functions, including the brain, internal organs and main arteries.

A fever is defined as when the body's temperature is higher than normal due to an infection. The fever is usually caused by a virus or bacteria and is a way in which the body fights infection.

'Normal temperature' is usually around 37 °C (98.6 °F). However, normal temperature is not the same for every individual. Temperature can vary with age, and even time of day. Usually it is lowest in the morning, highest in the afternoon and somewhat lower at bedtime.

To correctly tell whether someone in your family has a fever or not, it is important to know what their normal temperature is when they are well.